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What causes Dysbiosis?

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Posted

May 21, 2015

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Gut Health, Nutrition Articles

Early in the 20th century, Dr Elie Metchnikoff popularised the theory that disease begins in the digestive tract because of an imbalance of intestinal bacteria. He called this state dysbiosis, which comes from “symbiosis” meaning living together in mutual harmony and “dis” which means not.

Dr Metchnikoff was the first scientist to discover the useful properties of probiotics. He won the Nobel Prize in 1908 for his work on lactobacilli and humoral immunity and was a colleague of Louis Pasteur, succeeding him as the director of the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Dr Metchnikoff found that the bacteria in yoghurt prevented and reversed bacterial infection. His research proves that the lactobacilli could displace many disease-producing organisms and reduce the toxins they generated. He believed these endotoxins (toxins produced from substances inside the body) shortened lifespan and he advocated the use of lactobacillus in the 1940s for all manner of infections. Whilst there are many causes of dysbiosis, we generally bring it on ourselves. Constant high levels of stress, exposure to manufactured chemicals, poor food choices, oral contraceptives, surgery and use of antibiotics and painkillers all change the healthy balance of the digestive tract.

What causes Dysbiosis?

The most common cause of dysbiosis is the use of antibiotics which change the balance of intestinal microbes. Not terribly specific, antibiotics simultaneously kill both harmful and helpful bacteria throughout our digestive system, mouth, vagina and skin, leaving the territory to bacteria, parasites, viruses and yeast that are resistant to the antibiotic that was used. In a healthy gut, parasites may be present in small numbers and not cause problems but if allowed to flourish they can cause diarrhoea, illness and weight loss. Most people can recover fairly easily from a single round of antibiotics but even those with strong constitutions have struggled regaining balance from repeated use of antibiotic drugs. These microbes produce toxins that cause symptoms. The bacteria form chemicals that are poisonous to the cells around them and to the person they live in. A wide variety of substances are produced and these substances may hurt the intestinal lining directly by damaging the brush border and become absorbed into the bloodstream, causing system-wide effects. Initially, our body rushes white blood cells to the injured tissue to eat up the bacteria and produces an inflammatory reaction. Inflammation, pain and swelling are nature’s message to stop and let your body heal but we often ignore this basic instinct and reach for pain medication so we can continue our lives. If the pain and inflammation were initially caused by microbes and you never dealt with the cause, more endotoxins will be produced, causing chronic pain and inflammation and setting up a continuing cycle.

Often the pain medications we take become a factor in the continuation and severity of the problem. It becomes a vicious circle: the drug causes damage to the intestinal lining, causing more inflammation, irritation and pain; so we take more pain medication which causes further damage. One of the most common pain medications are corticosteroids and, because cortisone and prednisone have such powerful inflammatory effects, they are used long term by people with chronic illness. Long term use of cortisone and prednisone depresses the immune system, causing side effects such as lowered resistance to infection, parasites, stomach and duodenal ulcers, thinning of bones and dozens of other problems. Steroids are contraindicated for anyone who has a fungal infection because they provide excellent nourishment for fungi. Because cortisol steroids are so strong, they suppress your body’s ability to work through an illness on its own. They are best suited for an emergency, not daily use.

Many other factors contribute to dysbiosis. Low levels of hydrochloric acid (HCL) in the stomach encourage bacterial overgrowth. Poor transit time in the intestinal tract also encourages proliferation of bacteria. For example, in 24 hours, one E. coli bacterium produces nearly 5,000 identical bacteria. The longer they sit inside us, the greater their potential to colonise.

The vast majority of email and phone calls we receive, dysbiosis and leaky gut are at the cause whether its autoimmune conditions or gastrointestinal discomfort.

Hand holding skin supplements

The sebaceous gland - located in the dermis - is responsible for producing an oily substance called sebum. Sebum provides lubrication to the skin and helps to make it waterproof. In some people, the sebaceous glands can produce too much oil which leads oily skin. The most common condition caused by excessive sebum production is acne. The key the successful treatment of oily skin is to identify and address the following underlying causes:

  • Genetic factors - a positive family history is often a good indicator.
  • Imbalance of the skin’s and the gut’s microbiome (the gut-skin axis).
  • Systemic inflammation.
  • Insulin resistance - exacerbates oily and acne prone skin by increasing the proliferation of keratinocytes and it also stimulates the synthesis of androgens.
  • High androgens - testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, the more metabolically active form of testosterone) cause the sebaceous glands to produce more sebum in the skin.
  • Changes in female hormone levels - before menstruation, oestrogen and progesterone levels fall and result in proportionally higher levels of testosterone.
  • Stress and other environmental factors.

 

The best vitamins to consider when treating oily, acne prone skin:

Vitamin A is by far the most researched vitamin in relation to oily and acne prone skin. Vitamin A is well known for its role in supporting barrier function, it also heals the skin and modulates sebum production. Consuming dietary beta carotene, the precursor of Vitamin A, may be the most optimal option to achieve good levels of Vitamin A in the body.

Vitamin E stimulates skin regeneration and has anti-inflammatory properties, making it a promising tool in the treatment of oily, acne prone skin.

Vitamin C has also been shown to improve oily skin due to its anti-inflammatory properties.Vitamin C may help to reduce redness and swelling and is good for accelerating the healing process of the skin.

Vitamin B3 and B5 regulate the amount of oil the sebaceous glands produce and prevent them from going overdrive (9).

 

What vitamins are good for hair, nails and skin?

 

The skin, together with hair and nails, forms the integumentary system, a major protective barrier which guards us from chemicals, pathogens and other elements of our environment. Both hair and nails develop from the epidermis and are composed of (dead stratified squamous) epithelium cells which are rich in protein, especially keratin. Strong nails and glossy hair are considered great signs of health and vitality. From a naturopathic point of view, brittle nails and dry, lifeless hair can be a good indicator that some of the key vitamins and minerals are deficient.

The best vitamins for skin, hair and nails and their mechanisms discussed below:

Vitamin C and Vitamin E may be useful in supporting the integumentary system. There is growing evidence to suggest that oxidative stress is a pivotal mechanism behind hair graying and hair loss (10) thus ensuring these nutrients are adequate should be part of your intervention.

Biotin is one of the B vitamins and has many vital roles relating to the health of skin, hair and nails (11). It helps to protect your skin from water loss and regulates fatty acid metabolism and it has been shown to promote hair growth, particularly in people who are deficient (12). Brittle nails, scaly scalp, hair loss and dandruff can be signs of biotin deficiency.

Vitamin B12 and iron are essential for the production of red blood cells and haemoglobin and deficiency of these nutrients have been implicated in hair loss (13).

Nutrients that are essential in providing the building blocks for hair and nail growth: zinc, iron, copper, selenium, silicon, calcium and magnesium, silica. Proteins are also crucial for the health and vitality of our skin, hair and nails, especially the amino acids methionine, lysine, cysteine, glycine and proline.

 

What vitamins are good for skin elasticity?

 

Skin elasticity is the skin’s ability to return to its original shape after stretching. Your skin gets its stretchiness and resilience from two important proteins, collagen and elastin. The loss of elasticity, called elastosis, is a natural part of the ageing process which starts to appear in our 30s or in your 40s - if you’re one of the lucky ones (14). This ageing process is a result of both intrinsic (as with all internal organs) and extrinsic factors (sun exposure, stress, poor nutrition, high alcohol intake, smoking and air pollution) (15). Hormonal changes are also key factors, particularly the natural decline in oestrogen (16) and testosterone (17) production. 

Here are the best vitamins essential for skin elasticity:

Vitamin A (retinol) is converted to retinoic acid in the skin and it has been shown to modulate gene expression and influence cellular processes in both the epidermis and dermis, thereby exerting potent anti-ageing effects on our skin. Vitamin A has a key role in the prevention and treatment of UV-induced skin damage (18), making it the most important vitamin in the prevention of wrinkles and loss of elasticity.

Vitamin C is vital for the formation of collagen and elastin. This great but humble vitamin is also a powerful antioxidant, which means that it can trap free radicals that contribute to many processes of ageing, including loss of elasticity of the skin.

Vitamin E is another skin-friendly antioxidant and has been extensively investigated for its role in UV damage protection (19). Vitamin E appears to improve skin elasticity and vitality.

B vitamins – contribute to the production of collagen in the human body. Studies have shown that deficiency of Vitamin B2 & B6 is directly correlated with low collagen content of the skin so including a good B complex may be beneficial.

Get in touch and find out more about our Skin and beauty IV therapy, available here at our clinic in London.

 

What vitamins are good for skin with eczema?

 

Eczema is an inflammatory skin condition, characterised by red, dry and itchy patches. It’s commonly found on the skin of our neck, hands, feet, elbows and the back of the legs. Atopic eczema (atopic means ‘with a genetic predisposition’) is the most common form affecting 1 in 5 children and 1 in 12 adults in the UK (20).

Usually, healthy skin cells are tightly packed together creating a good natural barrier for immune defence. When you have eczema this barrier function is impaired and the skin’s delicate balance of beneficial bacteria is disrupted. This disruption allows toxins and pathogens to enter the skin (a process similar to leaky gut), which leads to an immune response and ultimately to an inflamed, irritated skin.

The best vitamins and nutrients for the management of eczema:

Vitamin D has been shown to alleviate the symptoms of eczema through its immune-regulatory, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities in the skin. Vitamin D deficiency is very common in eczema (21) and supplementation of at least 1000IU daily has been shown to reduce symptoms. Your practitioner will be able to assess your vitamin D levels through a simple finger prick test.

Vitamin A - the great ‘skin-vitamin’ - strengthens the skin’s protective layer and supports healing (22) and has been implicated in the treatment of eczema.

Vitamin E accumulates in the mitochondria within skin cells and promotes collagen and fibroblast synthesis. In a recent study, 400iu of vitamin E significantly improved the severity of eczema symptoms, including itching (23).

Vitamin C has anti-inflammatory properties, it’s a natural antihistamine and due to its effect on collagen production it’s a really useful vitamin for the treatment of eczema. Vitamin C might also help alleviate redness, itchiness and long-term damage to the skin.

 

Eczema is a multifactorial condition and its development often starts as early as birth so it’s important to approach it with a holistic, in-depth and comprehensive support. Read more about our expert practitioners who can offer more personalised support and advice.

 

Which is the best vitamin for skin complexion and makes your skin glow?

 

I’m sure we’ve all met someone who has a beautiful, blemish-free skin with an inner glow and luminance to it. Great skin is a true reflection of our inner wellbeing and you can achieve it by having good nutrition and looking after your physical and mental health.

The best vitamins for a healthy glow and great complexion:

Vitamin C, as mentioned above, is a powerful antioxidant that stimulates collagen production (24) making it your number one ticket to a luminescent skin. When applied topically Vitamin C has been shown to brighten the skin by reducing the appearance of hyperpigmentation.

Vitamin A again. Vitamin A has the ability to even skin tone and to give your skin a beautiful, healthy glow.

Biotin, helps to protect your skin from water loss and regulates fatty acid metabolism, giving your skin a healthy complexion.

Vitamin B3 is known to increase keratin, a protein that keeps your skin firm and healthy.

Glutathione  is one of the most important ‘free radical scavengers’ in the human body. This great antioxidant has been shown to reduce the appearance of wrinkles, hyperpigmentation and melasma (25).

 

IV- nutrient therapy with glutathione can give your skin a natural ‘refreshed’ glow and may even reduce pigmentation and redness of the skin.

 

Do Multivitamins help skin?

 

A well-balanced multivitamin that contains the key nutrients discussed above can be a great tool to support your skin health and your overall wellbeing. Choose a carefully formulated complex that is effective, pure, ethical and contains therapeutic doses of vitamins and minerals in their most bioavailable and easily absorbed from. Look for Vitamin D3 vs D2, methylfolate vs folic acid, iron citrate vs iron sulphate and so on. For the best skin support, choose a good multi that contains the most important nutrients: vitamins A, C, D, E, B complex, zinc, iron, selenium and chromium. Any plant derived antioxidants like green tea, rosehip, blueberry, turmeric is a bonus!

 

Have you tried IV nutrient therapy before? Here, at the London Clinic of Nutrition, we offer a range of conventional and bespoke infusions to revitalise our clients’ health and help them reverse chronic disease. Find out more here.

 

Dietary and lifestyle considerations for a healthy and glowing skin

Foods for skin health
  • If your skin complaints continue to persist, consider eliminating allergens such as wheat, dairy and eggs.

 

  • Include probiotic rich foods such as kombucha, kimchi, sauerkraut, fermented tofu and kefir to support the skin’s (and gut) microbiome.

 

  • Take a good quality and pure omega 3 supplement to support skin hydration and regulate inflammatory response of the skin (26).

 

  • Consider supplementing with marine collagen, a natural source of type 1 collagen that is easily absorbed.

 

  • Support methylation and detoxification with vitamins and minerals like methylfolate, methylcobalamine, vitamin B6, zinc and copper.

 

  • Consume organic produce wherever possible.

 

  • Although sun exposure is vital for vitamin D production and our circadian rhythm, a sensible approach is recommended to avoid sun damage.

 

  • Protect your skin from damage with antioxidants. Eat plenty of vegetables and (some) fruits of rainbow of colours. Particularly green and orange ones for their carotenoid and polyphenol content.

 

  • Include protein rich foods - protein supports the growth and maintenance of collagen and elastin fibres. Amino acids proline and lysine work together with vitamin C to enhance the formation of collagen.

 

  • Choose more natural household products to minimise exposure to environmental toxins.

 

  • Manage stress through mindfulness, meditation and yoga. Improve sleep hygiene by reducing blue light in the evenings.

 

Consult one of our expert team members to discuss functional tests to assess gut issues, liver function, hormonal irregularities and genetic predisposition for vitamin inefficiencies (for example MTHFR and VDR).

 

Call us today on 020 3332 0030 and a member of the team will be available to answer any queries you have.

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