fbpx

Histamine intolerance

Back to All Articles

Posted

April 17, 2015

Categories

Diet & Lifestyle, Gut Health, Nutrition Articles

Dietary management of histamine intolerance has been an area of focus in central Europe for decades, but remains relatively unknown elsewhere. a few recent studies have ignited interest because of important reported benefits of a low-histamine diet.

What is histamine intolerance?

Histamine intolerance (HIT), also known as enteral histaminosis, is a condition that is characterised by the development of a diverse set of problematic symptoms after the ingestion of histamine containing foods. Importantly, current thinking is that HIT is not solely due to dietary histamine exposure, but exposure coupled with insufficient or impaired histamine detoxification

What causes histamine intolerance?

Elevations in histamine due to an imbalance between detoxification and dietary exposure can cause histamine receptor mediated complications with allergic type symptoms such as flushing, headaches or urticaria, and gastrointestinal symptoms including diarrhoea and abdominal pain Dietary histamine is found at particularly high concentration in aged foods (eg cheeses, alcoholic beverages, cured meats, fermented or spoiled foods) where it is produced by bacterial or yeast fermentation of the amino acid histidine to histamine. Other foods, such as citrus for example, may have the capacity to enhance histamine release even though they contain low levels of histamine themselves.

Detoxification of dietary histamine normally occurs in intestinal epithelial cells via the enzyme diamine oxidase (DAO) as well as histamine-N-methyl-transferase (HNMT) in the liver. If DAO fails to inactivate histamine, it can be absorbed through the gut epithelium and enter the bloodstream and systemic circulation where it can cause the typical symptoms of Histamine intolerance.

There have been associations between genetic variants that affect DAO and/or HNMT activity and inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, allergic rhinitis and migraine headache, suggesting increased susceptibility to histamine intolerance in some individuals

How is histamine intolerance diagnosed?

The diagnosis of HIT typically requires the presence of two or more symptoms, improvement with a low histamine diet and/or antihistamines, and the exclusion of food allergies. Testing remains controversial as blood and urine histamine is often normal,and the usefulness of determining DAO levels or DAO and HNMT genotype is unclear.

HIT appears to be transient, and may depend more on modifiable physiological and environmental factors than genetic susceptibility. Damage to the gastrointestinal mucosa, as in inflammatory bowel disease or coeliac disease, may reduce histamine detoxification capacity and should be considered. Limiting exposure to histamine provoking foods (see Table 1) as well as alcohol, which competitively inhibits intestinal DOA, are common clinical practices. After dietary histamine removal and symptom improvement many patients may be able to tolerate histamine-containing foods again and return to a normal diet. In addition to dietary therapy, nutritional supplementation with nutritional co-factors for DOA has been suggested, in particular zinc, copper, vitamin C and vitamin B6. Of these nutrients, both vitamin C and B6 have some evidence to suggest they would support histamine detoxification

Gut bacteria and histamine intolerance

Finally, although it has been relatively unexplored, it is plausible to suggest that differences in gut bacteria could result in increase histamine production through fermentation of histidine to histamine,or have direct affects on intestinal DOA activity. Lending support to this idea the GG strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) was found to reduce allergy-related immune activation by down regulation of the expression of histamine receptor genes

In summary, it appears more attention should be given to the possibility of HIT as a clinical diagnosis, namely because nutritional therapy appears to be a safe and effective treatment for symptoms that may be otherwise misdiagnosed and treated with little hope for resolution.

Hand holding skin supplements

The sebaceous gland - located in the dermis - is responsible for producing an oily substance called sebum. Sebum provides lubrication to the skin and helps to make it waterproof. In some people, the sebaceous glands can produce too much oil which leads oily skin. The most common condition caused by excessive sebum production is acne. The key the successful treatment of oily skin is to identify and address the following underlying causes:

  • Genetic factors - a positive family history is often a good indicator.
  • Imbalance of the skin’s and the gut’s microbiome (the gut-skin axis).
  • Systemic inflammation.
  • Insulin resistance - exacerbates oily and acne prone skin by increasing the proliferation of keratinocytes and it also stimulates the synthesis of androgens.
  • High androgens - testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, the more metabolically active form of testosterone) cause the sebaceous glands to produce more sebum in the skin.
  • Changes in female hormone levels - before menstruation, oestrogen and progesterone levels fall and result in proportionally higher levels of testosterone.
  • Stress and other environmental factors.

 

The best vitamins to consider when treating oily, acne prone skin:

Vitamin A is by far the most researched vitamin in relation to oily and acne prone skin. Vitamin A is well known for its role in supporting barrier function, it also heals the skin and modulates sebum production. Consuming dietary beta carotene, the precursor of Vitamin A, may be the most optimal option to achieve good levels of Vitamin A in the body.

Vitamin E stimulates skin regeneration and has anti-inflammatory properties, making it a promising tool in the treatment of oily, acne prone skin.

Vitamin C has also been shown to improve oily skin due to its anti-inflammatory properties.Vitamin C may help to reduce redness and swelling and is good for accelerating the healing process of the skin.

Vitamin B3 and B5 regulate the amount of oil the sebaceous glands produce and prevent them from going overdrive (9).

 

What vitamins are good for hair, nails and skin?

 

The skin, together with hair and nails, forms the integumentary system, a major protective barrier which guards us from chemicals, pathogens and other elements of our environment. Both hair and nails develop from the epidermis and are composed of (dead stratified squamous) epithelium cells which are rich in protein, especially keratin. Strong nails and glossy hair are considered great signs of health and vitality. From a naturopathic point of view, brittle nails and dry, lifeless hair can be a good indicator that some of the key vitamins and minerals are deficient.

The best vitamins for skin, hair and nails and their mechanisms discussed below:

Vitamin C and Vitamin E may be useful in supporting the integumentary system. There is growing evidence to suggest that oxidative stress is a pivotal mechanism behind hair graying and hair loss (10) thus ensuring these nutrients are adequate should be part of your intervention.

Biotin is one of the B vitamins and has many vital roles relating to the health of skin, hair and nails (11). It helps to protect your skin from water loss and regulates fatty acid metabolism and it has been shown to promote hair growth, particularly in people who are deficient (12). Brittle nails, scaly scalp, hair loss and dandruff can be signs of biotin deficiency.

Vitamin B12 and iron are essential for the production of red blood cells and haemoglobin and deficiency of these nutrients have been implicated in hair loss (13).

Nutrients that are essential in providing the building blocks for hair and nail growth: zinc, iron, copper, selenium, silicon, calcium and magnesium, silica. Proteins are also crucial for the health and vitality of our skin, hair and nails, especially the amino acids methionine, lysine, cysteine, glycine and proline.

 

What vitamins are good for skin elasticity?

 

Skin elasticity is the skin’s ability to return to its original shape after stretching. Your skin gets its stretchiness and resilience from two important proteins, collagen and elastin. The loss of elasticity, called elastosis, is a natural part of the ageing process which starts to appear in our 30s or in your 40s - if you’re one of the lucky ones (14). This ageing process is a result of both intrinsic (as with all internal organs) and extrinsic factors (sun exposure, stress, poor nutrition, high alcohol intake, smoking and air pollution) (15). Hormonal changes are also key factors, particularly the natural decline in oestrogen (16) and testosterone (17) production. 

Here are the best vitamins essential for skin elasticity:

Vitamin A (retinol) is converted to retinoic acid in the skin and it has been shown to modulate gene expression and influence cellular processes in both the epidermis and dermis, thereby exerting potent anti-ageing effects on our skin. Vitamin A has a key role in the prevention and treatment of UV-induced skin damage (18), making it the most important vitamin in the prevention of wrinkles and loss of elasticity.

Vitamin C is vital for the formation of collagen and elastin. This great but humble vitamin is also a powerful antioxidant, which means that it can trap free radicals that contribute to many processes of ageing, including loss of elasticity of the skin.

Vitamin E is another skin-friendly antioxidant and has been extensively investigated for its role in UV damage protection (19). Vitamin E appears to improve skin elasticity and vitality.

B vitamins – contribute to the production of collagen in the human body. Studies have shown that deficiency of Vitamin B2 & B6 is directly correlated with low collagen content of the skin so including a good B complex may be beneficial.

Get in touch and find out more about our Skin and beauty IV therapy, available here at our clinic in London.

 

What vitamins are good for skin with eczema?

 

Eczema is an inflammatory skin condition, characterised by red, dry and itchy patches. It’s commonly found on the skin of our neck, hands, feet, elbows and the back of the legs. Atopic eczema (atopic means ‘with a genetic predisposition’) is the most common form affecting 1 in 5 children and 1 in 12 adults in the UK (20).

Usually, healthy skin cells are tightly packed together creating a good natural barrier for immune defence. When you have eczema this barrier function is impaired and the skin’s delicate balance of beneficial bacteria is disrupted. This disruption allows toxins and pathogens to enter the skin (a process similar to leaky gut), which leads to an immune response and ultimately to an inflamed, irritated skin.

The best vitamins and nutrients for the management of eczema:

Vitamin D has been shown to alleviate the symptoms of eczema through its immune-regulatory, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities in the skin. Vitamin D deficiency is very common in eczema (21) and supplementation of at least 1000IU daily has been shown to reduce symptoms. Your practitioner will be able to assess your vitamin D levels through a simple finger prick test.

Vitamin A - the great ‘skin-vitamin’ - strengthens the skin’s protective layer and supports healing (22) and has been implicated in the treatment of eczema.

Vitamin E accumulates in the mitochondria within skin cells and promotes collagen and fibroblast synthesis. In a recent study, 400iu of vitamin E significantly improved the severity of eczema symptoms, including itching (23).

Vitamin C has anti-inflammatory properties, it’s a natural antihistamine and due to its effect on collagen production it’s a really useful vitamin for the treatment of eczema. Vitamin C might also help alleviate redness, itchiness and long-term damage to the skin.

 

Eczema is a multifactorial condition and its development often starts as early as birth so it’s important to approach it with a holistic, in-depth and comprehensive support. Read more about our expert practitioners who can offer more personalised support and advice.

 

Which is the best vitamin for skin complexion and makes your skin glow?

 

I’m sure we’ve all met someone who has a beautiful, blemish-free skin with an inner glow and luminance to it. Great skin is a true reflection of our inner wellbeing and you can achieve it by having good nutrition and looking after your physical and mental health.

The best vitamins for a healthy glow and great complexion:

Vitamin C, as mentioned above, is a powerful antioxidant that stimulates collagen production (24) making it your number one ticket to a luminescent skin. When applied topically Vitamin C has been shown to brighten the skin by reducing the appearance of hyperpigmentation.

Vitamin A again. Vitamin A has the ability to even skin tone and to give your skin a beautiful, healthy glow.

Biotin, helps to protect your skin from water loss and regulates fatty acid metabolism, giving your skin a healthy complexion.

Vitamin B3 is known to increase keratin, a protein that keeps your skin firm and healthy.

Glutathione  is one of the most important ‘free radical scavengers’ in the human body. This great antioxidant has been shown to reduce the appearance of wrinkles, hyperpigmentation and melasma (25).

 

IV- nutrient therapy with glutathione can give your skin a natural ‘refreshed’ glow and may even reduce pigmentation and redness of the skin.

 

Do Multivitamins help skin?

 

A well-balanced multivitamin that contains the key nutrients discussed above can be a great tool to support your skin health and your overall wellbeing. Choose a carefully formulated complex that is effective, pure, ethical and contains therapeutic doses of vitamins and minerals in their most bioavailable and easily absorbed from. Look for Vitamin D3 vs D2, methylfolate vs folic acid, iron citrate vs iron sulphate and so on. For the best skin support, choose a good multi that contains the most important nutrients: vitamins A, C, D, E, B complex, zinc, iron, selenium and chromium. Any plant derived antioxidants like green tea, rosehip, blueberry, turmeric is a bonus!

 

Have you tried IV nutrient therapy before? Here, at the London Clinic of Nutrition, we offer a range of conventional and bespoke infusions to revitalise our clients’ health and help them reverse chronic disease. Find out more here.

 

Dietary and lifestyle considerations for a healthy and glowing skin

Foods for skin health
  • If your skin complaints continue to persist, consider eliminating allergens such as wheat, dairy and eggs.

 

  • Include probiotic rich foods such as kombucha, kimchi, sauerkraut, fermented tofu and kefir to support the skin’s (and gut) microbiome.

 

  • Take a good quality and pure omega 3 supplement to support skin hydration and regulate inflammatory response of the skin (26).

 

  • Consider supplementing with marine collagen, a natural source of type 1 collagen that is easily absorbed.

 

  • Support methylation and detoxification with vitamins and minerals like methylfolate, methylcobalamine, vitamin B6, zinc and copper.

 

  • Consume organic produce wherever possible.

 

  • Although sun exposure is vital for vitamin D production and our circadian rhythm, a sensible approach is recommended to avoid sun damage.

 

  • Protect your skin from damage with antioxidants. Eat plenty of vegetables and (some) fruits of rainbow of colours. Particularly green and orange ones for their carotenoid and polyphenol content.

 

  • Include protein rich foods - protein supports the growth and maintenance of collagen and elastin fibres. Amino acids proline and lysine work together with vitamin C to enhance the formation of collagen.

 

  • Choose more natural household products to minimise exposure to environmental toxins.

 

  • Manage stress through mindfulness, meditation and yoga. Improve sleep hygiene by reducing blue light in the evenings.

 

Consult one of our expert team members to discuss functional tests to assess gut issues, liver function, hormonal irregularities and genetic predisposition for vitamin inefficiencies (for example MTHFR and VDR).

 

Call us today on 020 3332 0030 and a member of the team will be available to answer any queries you have.

FREE 15 MINUTE CONSULTATION

GET OUR NEWSLETTER

Receive FREE Health tips, Recipes and More

Who

The London Clinic of Nutrition is a multi-disciplined health practice offering personalised nutritional medicine and naturopathy using the functional medicine approach.

Where

100 Seymour Place
Marylebone
London
W1H 1NE
United Kingdon

Contact

London Clinic of Nutrition ©. All Rights Reserved.